Selasa, 25 Oktober 2016

Flora & Fauna

The White Cockatoo

The white cockatoo (Cacatua alba), also known as the umbrella cockatoo, is a medium-sized all-white cockatoo endemic to tropical rainforest on islands of Indonesia. When surprised, it extends a large and striking head crest, which has a semicircular shape (similar to an umbrella, hence the alternative name). The undersides of the wings and tail have a pale yellow or lemon color which flashes when they fly. It is similar to other species of white cockatoo such as yellow-crested cockatoo, sulphur-crested cockatoo, and salmon-crested cockatoo, all of which have yellow, orange or pink crest feathers instead of white.
It kingdom is Animalia, phylum is Chordata, class is Aves, order is Psittaciformes, superfamily is cacatuoidea, family is Cacatuidae, subfamily is Cacatuinae, tribe is Cacatuini, genus is Cacatua, subgenus is Cacatua, species is C. alba.
The white cockatoo was first described in 1776 by German zoologist Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller. Its species name alba is a feminine form of the Latin adjective albus for "white". It lies in the subgenus Cacatua within the genus Cacatua. The term "white cockatoo" has also been applied as a group term to members of the subgenus Cacatua, the genus Cacatua as well as larger groups including Major Mitchell's cockatoo and the galah cockatoo.
While psittaciform parrots and cockatoos have many common anatomical attributes like zygodactyl feet and hooked bills, the cockatoos and parrots diverged from the ancestral parrots as separate lineages as early as 45 MYA (fossil record) or 66 MYA (molecular analysis) (Wright 2008) during the period when Australia, South America and Antarctica were breaking away from the super-continent Gondwanaland where the ancestral parrots were believed to have evolved.
Though historically they (white cockatoos as well as related species) have been referred to as "white parrots", taxonomically they are not considered to be true parrots.

Cacatua alba -Pairi Daiza, Hainaut, Belgium-8a.jpgThe white cockatoo is around 46 cm (18 in) long, and weighs about 400 g (14 oz) for small females and up to 800 g (28 oz) for big males. The male white cockatoo usually has a broader head and a bigger beak than the female. They have brown or black eyes and a dark grey beak. When mature some female white cockatoos can have reddish/brown irises , while the irises of the adult male are dark brown or black and that color can not change except disease

The feathers of the white cockatoo are mostly white. However, both upper and lower surfaces of the inner half of the trailing edge of the large wing feathers are a yellow color. The yellow color on the underside of the wings is most notable because the yellow portion of the upper surface of the feather is covered by the white of the feather immediately medial (nearer to the body) and above.

Image result for habitat kakatua putihof Halmahera, Bacan, Ternate, Tidore, Kasiruta and Mandioli (Bacan group) in North Maluku, Indonesia. Records from Obi and Bisa (Obi group) are thought to be introductions. It occurs in primary, logged, and secondary forests below 900m. It also occurs in mangroves, plantations including coconut and agricultural land. In the wild, white cockatoos feed on berries, seeds, nuts, fruit and roots. When nesting, they include insects and insect larvae. In their natural habitat, umbrella cockatoos typically feed on various seeds, nuts and fruits, such as papaya, langsat, and rambutan.

Like all cockatoos, the white cockatoo nests in hollows of large trees. Its eggs are white and there are usually two in a clutch. During the incubation period – about 28 days – both the female and male incubate the eggs. The larger chick becomes dominant over the smaller chick and takes more of the food. The chicks leave the nest about 84 days after hatching and are independent in 15–18 weeks. Juveniles reach sexual maturity in 3–4 years.
Seeing the pace of arrests and trade as well have been a loss of white cockatoo in some areas in Halmahera, it is time the bird was designated as a protected species. Moreover, these birds also includes species endemic to North Maluku.

According to Government Regulation No. 7 of 1999 (Article 5), a species must be classified in the class are protected when it has the following criteria;
            -Mempuyai small population
            - steep decline in the number of individuals in the wild.
            -Limited distribution area (endemic).

Thus the white cockatoo actually met the criteria for inclusion in the list of protected species

Question :
  1. The feathers of the white cockatoo are mostly white. However, both upper and lower surfaces of the inner half of the trailing edge of the large wing feathers color?
                            A. Chorme    B. Lavender   C.Maroon    D. White    E.Orange

  2. Where the white cockatoo usually nests?
    A.  in above of large trees
    B.  on the top of highest mountain
    C. in hollows of large tree
    D.  under shrubs
    E.  between hollows of two giant tree
  3.What another name in latin for White cockatoo ?
      A. Cacatua alba
      B. Cacatua alvaris
      C.Cacatua albuse
      D.Paradise cacatuini
      E.Alba sororis
  4.  Look at the picture below!
          See from the pictures , what things that can be found?
Cacatua alba -Pairi Daiza, Hainaut, Belgium-8a.jpgA.seen from the shape of its beak, this animals including meat eaters
B.Species endemic to  Maluku province
C.This bird is an animal type Neotropics
D.This bird is a species of fauna australis
E. the white cockatoo actually recorded  in the list of protected species

5. What the meaning of Endemik Indonesia ?
   A. unique animal of  Indonesia
   B.included in the fauna Australis
   C.endangered animal in Indonesia
   D.only found in Indonesia
   E. scattered in Indonesia
for question number 6 to 10 answer True or False
  6. When mature some female white cockatoos can have reddish orange irises but in old age the colors fade and become dark irises.
                                           A. True                                                 B. False 

 7.  In their natural habitat, umbrella cockatoos typically feed on various seeds, nuts and grapefruits, such as papaya, langsat, and rambutan.
                                          A.True                                                 B.False

 8.During the incubation period  about 1,8 x 10-5 Second  both the female and male incubate the eggs
                                           A.True                                                B.False

9. Male bird have brown and female bird black eyes and both them have a dark grey beak
                                         A.True                                                 B.False 

10. the species name alba is a gentle form of the Latin adjective albus for "white"
                                         A.True                                                 B. False


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